Force Field analysis

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Alternative names: 
FFA, FF Analysis
Level of process: 
Intent or purpose: 
The purpose of this analysis is to create a plan for the implementation of change. Furthermore, it helps the team members to think realistically about changes and obstacles that might occur during a process.
Types of Participants: 
Any types of participants can be involved in this process.
Recommended size of group: 
Remarks about group size: 
The group can be of any size.
Optimal amount of time needed: 
The time needed depends on the amount and variety of forces and how thoroughly they are being analyzed.
Usual or Expected Outcomes: 
The outcome should be an analysis that helps to put changes into action that will improve certain processes.
Level of participation: 
The level of participation is high as people have to actively think about their work and what might affect it negatively or positively.
Ideal Conditions: 
There are no special conditions needed.
Potential Pitfalls: 
In case a significant force is left out, it's impact can negatively affect a plan of action. Therefore, all important forces and factors must be included and considered.
How is success evaluated: 
The process is successful when the team managed to identify both positive and negative forces.
Type of Facilitator-Client Relationship: 
A special Facilitator-Client Relationship is not neccesary.
Level of Difficulty to Facilitate: 
Not set
Setting and Materials: 
A FFA sheet might be useful to realize the structure. (Can be downloaded - see references)
Resources Needed: 
There are no additional resources needed.
Pre-Work Required: 
There is no work that needs to be done beforehand.

There are five basic steps to a successful Force Field Analysis (FFA) Step One is to state the problem or the desired state. The facilitator should make sure that all team members understand the stated issue. The statement should be constructed in terms of factors working for and against the desired state, or then in terms of factors working for and against the status quo or problem state. Then, the team has to brainstorm about the positive as well as about the negative forces. Next, Each force or factor will have to be reviewed and clarified, if necessary. This means asking oneself and others (within the team) what is behind each factor and what could work to (re-)balance the situation. What has to follow is the determination of how strong the hindering forces are (either high, medium or low) in terms of achieving the desired state or in matters of improving the problem state. The forces with the biggest impact should be tested as the likeliest causes. When the facilitator and the client (team) want to develop a solution, these factors should be the focus of the plan so as to reduce resistance to change.

How flexible is the process?: 
The process is very flexible in terms of the problem dealt with, and the estimated time.
Follow-Up Required: 
There is no follow-up requiered.
Kurt Lewin
1. A blank Force Field analysis sheet: 2.